What Are Proteins?
Proteins are organic molecules made up of amino acids which include carbon,oxygen,hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. In long chains amino acids make the proteins.These proteins are the bases for the muscular mass in the body of humans. Our body is capable of making some types of amino acids, though we also need to eat certain foods to get other amino acids which our body is not able to produce for making proteins.
Proteins are needed for many cellular functions that are necessary for keeping a person healthy and alive. Proteins are used by almost every cell in the human body for making the structure for cells, responding to the stimuliand copying the DNA, etc.
Types of Protein
A large number of types of proteins are foundin human bodies that differ from oneanother by structure and functions. Based on their functions, the main types of proteins are as follows:
- Catalyst Proteins: Most of the enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts in the chemical reaction of the body and inside the cell. These proteins help the chemical reaction by increasing their speed.
- Defensive Proteins: These proteins are utilised by our immune system for making antibodies, which are used to neutralize microbes of infectious diseases.
- Structural Proteins: These types of proteins make the structure of the body and the cells.
- Transport Proteins: These types of proteins help our body to carry nutrients. For instance, haemoglobin in RBCs is a protein which carries the oxygen from the lungs and supplies it throughout the body.
How Proteins Are Made?
The cells in our body produce proteins. This process is called protein synthesis. DNA stores all the instructions of making different types of proteins. Two major stages of protein synthesis are transcription and translation.
- Transcription: It is the first stage of protein synthesiswherein cells replicate the DNA. This replicate of DNA is calledRNA or ribonucleic acid.
- Translation: In this stage, the RNA produced in the transcription stage is now converted into a specific sequence of amino acids which produces a certain type of protein. All the processes of translation stage take place in certain cell organelles, called ribosomes.
- It is the meat that we eat and dairy products that provide many kinds of amino acids in our body. Vegetables also provide some amino acids.
- In the human body,keratin is a protein which is responsible for the making of hair.
- Long chains of amino acids are linked in a protein with a bond, called peptide bond.
- There are about 100,000 different types of protein in the human body. The lifespan of most proteins is about two days or less.